Glossary   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Saffron  Crocus sativus

The flower rises directly from the ground, having no true stem. It has 6 lavender, white, or reddish purple flowers up to 2 inches long, with linear grass-like leaves that can be up to one and a half feet long. It does not produce fruit and flowers in September. Height: up to 18 inches.

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Sage  Salvia officinalis

Hardy perennial subshrub with square, woody, wiry stems. Flowers can be pink, purple, blue, or white and grow in whorls of four to eight axils. Leaves look pebbly and wrinkled, are grayish-green, long-stalked and hairy to velvety. Height: 12-30 inches.

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Sarsaparilla  Smilax officinalis

Perennial climber with erect, semi-woody stems and sharp thorns. The leaves are large, prominently veined, and alternately stalked. Small, greenish flowers are followed by black berries.

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Sassafras  Sassafras albidum

Small deciduous trees with aromatic, mitten-shaped leaves and rough gray, deeply-channeled bark. Flowers are pale yellow-green in 2-inch racemes. Most leaves are 3-lobed, though some are ovate. Produces a blue ovoid fruit with one seed. Height: 30-50 feet. Blooms: Spring, before leaves appear.

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Saw Palmetto  Serenoa repens

Member of the fan palms. Small, stout evergreen shrub supported by a large underground trunk. The edge of the leaves has the appearance of a saw.

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Scullcap  scutellaria lateriflora

Perennial growing up to 1 foot tall with thin, sharply pointed, oval leaves. Small, blue flowers appear in clusters on the upper-stems. Blooms: June-September

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Shepherd's Purse  Capsella bursa-pastoris

Annual or biennial whose rough, green leaves form a rosette from the erect stem rises. The stem ends in tiny, white flowers and has small, flat, heart-shaped seed pods all the way up to the flowers.

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Shiitake  Lentinus Edodes

Gilled mushrooms ranging in color from light amber to dark brown. Native to Asia, they are most often found growing on fallen trees.

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Siberian Ginseng  Eleutherococcus senticosus

Thorny shrub that reaches heights of up to 8 feet. The root is woody and much larger than true ginseng root. It has several erect spiny stems with light great or brownish bark. The leaves are palm shaped and it produces a black berry.

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Slippery Elm  Ulmus rubra

Deciduous tree growing up to 132 feet, flowers appear from February-May, before the leaves appear.

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Spearmint  Mentha spicata

Hardy, branched perennial shrub, spearmint has bright green leaves and pink to lilac flowers in slender cylindrical spikes. Height: 2.5 feet. Blooms: August-September

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Spikenard  Aralia racemosa

An oversized herb, with stems coming from one main stalk. It has a height of up to 6 feet and a width of 3 feet. The berries are almost round, hard, red-brown turning to dark purple. The root is thick with heavy bark, and has a pungent smell and taste.

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Squaw Vine  Mitchella repens

Creeping herb with pale pink flowers shaped as elongated tubes and small, oval, dark green shiny leaves. Evergreen. Fruit is a double red or white berry. Height: 4 inches. Blooms: June and July

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St. John's Wort  Hypericum perforatum

Erect, round stems with two raised, longitudinal ridges on each. Bright yellow flowers in terminal, flat, leafy panicles on branches, they are marked by black dots and lines. Produces many small black seeds in three-celled capsules. Height: up to 2 feet. Blooms: July and August.

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Stone Root  Collinsonia canadensis

Tall bush with straight, rigid stems and oval, coarsely toothed leaves. The root is brown-gray and stone hard. Height: 1-4 feet. Lemon-scented flowers bloom July to September.

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Strawberry  Fragaria vesca

Deciduous, herbaceous perennial, spreading by runners or stolons. Single white flowers on stems are followed by red or white berries with numerous yellow seeds on the outside. Blooms: April to July

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